Alternative Mitigation of the Polk Tenant Site (7NC-F-111)
We have collected data from more than 50 well features excavated in Delaware, and this month at Versar we’re blogging about the beginnings of our data analysis. We have collected dozens of different attributes (such as depth and lining material), and our task now is to look for patterns among those attributes across time and place. At this stage, there are a couple of observations we can make about the materials used to line wells.
The earliest wells in our sample were all lined with wood until the second quarter of the 18th century. Most of these early wells were rectangular wood plank wells, though there is a wood plank well with a barrel at the bottom dating from probably the first quarter of the 18th century. Barrel-only wells appear in the sample by the third quarter of the 18th century, and seem to persist until the third quarter of the 19th century. Masonry well linings appear later, and continue through the latest wells included in the study. The first brick well in the sample appears to date from the second quarter of the 18th century, while the first stone-lined wells date from the last quarter of the 18th century.
This makes some intuitive sense, and mirrors patterns in construction materials used for other structures. Brick makers and bricks might not have been widely available in the earliest years of European settlement, while wood would have been abundant. Barrels might also have been common, and an easy expedient for lining a shallow well, compared to the level of effort that would have been needed to line a well with brick or stone. All one needed to do was to remove the top and bottom of the barrel, and lower it into the hole dug for the well shaft. Since most wells excavated in Delaware are quite shallow, one could line a well with as few as three barrels.
Due to ice and drifting snow, the Delaware Department of Transportation advises motorists to stay off of Delaware roads. But, if anyone must venture out into dangerous conditions, he or she should know what to do if his or her vehicle becomes hopelessly stuck. The AAA offers this advice:
Dover – Delaware Department of Transportation crews were on the job overnight and this morning, plowing and salting roads to make them safe. Their efforts are being hindered, however, by temperatures in the single digits and strong winds. Temperature below 10 degrees make salt less effective at melting ice and snow. High winds cause snow to drift back over areas already plowed.
As a result, a Level 1 driving emergency remains in effect today. Motorists should stay off the roads unless their travel is absolutely necessary. Roads will be icy in spots and secondary, and suburban streets will be snow covered in locations. Bridges, ramps and other elevated surfaces may be slippery.
As the day progresses and daylight returns, DelDOT will be in a better position to assess the road network and advise state officials on appropriate driving precautions.
DelDOT takes every reasonable precaution to minimize or prevent any damage to public or private property during any of its operations. However, if your property was damaged, please call 1-(800) 652-5600.
As they perform their snow removal duties, DelDOT’s crews must necessarily stop for bathroom, meal and occasional rest breaks. During snow events, DelDOT crews frequently work long shifts into the late night or early morning hours. Driving large, heavy vehicles under adverse road conditions requires intense concentration and can be physically and mentally exhausting. If drivers stop their vehicles on the roadside or are parked at a local business, be assured the break they are taking is richly deserved.
Who should you call if you are snowed-in but must travel? The answer depends upon the severity of your need to travel.
Call 911 if there if there is a life-threatening situation.
However, if you have a non-life-threatening emergency and you need to travel by automobile, you may request assistance by calling your county’s Emergency Operations Center. This assistance is only available in extreme weather conditions.
Sussex County Emergency Operations Center: (302) 855-7801
Kent County Emergency Operations Center: (302) 735-3474
New Castle County Emergency Operations Center: (302) 395-2700
Wilmington Emergency Operations Center: (302) 576-3914
Delaware Department of Transportation snow plows are assigned to plow specific roads, and they must travel quickly, but safely, from one assignment to another. With their plows down, trucks travel more slowly and might need to stop at each crossroad. Further, if a road has been recently salted, driving with the plow down might remove salt that has been applied to help melt snow and ice.
Snow removal operations must proceed as quickly and safely as possible in order to plow as many miles of road as possible in a limited amount of time. The Delaware Department of Transportation is responsible for more than 12,000 lane- miles of roads, or 89 percent of the roads in Delaware. Drivers are trained to operate their equipment at safe speeds that will result in an effective snow removal effort over a large area.
If you believe that a vehicle is being driven in a reckless or unsafe manner, please contact DelDOT’s Office of Public Relations at (302) 760-2080 with detailed information about the specific situation.
While the Delaware Department of Transportation is responsible for maintenance of 89 percent of roads in the state, DelDOT does not plow roads and streets that are maintained by towns or cities. DelDOT also does not plow roads within privately owned subdivisions. DelDOT does plow some roads that are within city or town limits, but only those that are designated state maintained roads. Residents of incorporated towns or cities should first check with local government officials to learn if your street or road is municipally maintained.
For example, in the town of Greenwood, DelDOT plows Market Street, because that road is part of Del. 16, which is a major route for motorists heading east and west in Sussex County. In Dover, DelDOT plows North and South Dupont Highways for the same reason.
According to Delaware Emergency Management Agency, a winter storm warning is in place for the entire state of Delaware, with predicted snow totals of: 10 — 14 inches in New Castle County above the Chesapeake & Delaware Canal, 8 — 10 inches in New Castle County below the Canal and in Kent County, and 6 — 8 inches in Sussex County
Precipitation will be heaviest in the afternoon and early evening. Precipitation will be all snow, and the snow will be a dry snow, resulting in drifting issues. Snow may taper off before midnight, but blowing snow will remain an issue. Snow will be out of the area by daybreak.
Gusts of wind could reach 35 mph.
Temperatures will be very cold, with a wind-chill advisory for the entire state. Long-range temperatures will remain very cold throughout next week, averaging 10 — 15 degrees below normal.